Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

Nestik T.A. The attitudes toward global risks among gamers playing different computer games

Based on a review of studies on the effects of cinematographic images of global catastrophes on individual attitudes to climate change, it is concluded that they raise concerns about global risks, but may reduce the assessment of their likelihood. The psychological characteristics of computer games, the action of which takes place after a global catastrophe, are analyzed. It was supposed that the computer game culture maintains belief in the possibility of survival after a nuclear war, leads to an underestimation of the imaginary catastrophic consequences, the true reality of which is not available to the experience of living humanity. The results of three exploratory studies of gamers’ attitudes toward global risks (N = 547, N = 503, N = 291) are presented. It is shown that the experience of playing computer games is negatively related with anxiety about global risks and the value of humanity survival. Nevertheless, a comparison of the types of game preferences, we have identified, shows, that gamers playing post-apocalyptic games are characterized by higher concerns about global risks and social pessimism. They are more willing to participate in the prevention of global risks, but at the same time they are more inclined to believe that a global catastrophe can be survived if you prepare for it in advance. Respondents who do not play computer games, as well as gamers who prefer shooters and arcades, were most inclined to fatalistic ignoring global risks. At the same time, the same two groups had the highest fear of personal death. On the contrary, gamers, who prefer multiplayer online role-playing games, are more optimistic about the future of humanity, less inclined to ignore global risks and less prone to the fear of personal death, which may be due to their experience in creating successful alliances to solve complex task in games. Promising areas of research on the impact of computer games on the attitudes to global risks and prosocial attitudes are outlined.

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Kornienko D.S., Baleva M.V., Rudnova N.A. "Good and simple, bad and complex": the perceived image of another and the Dark triad

The Dark triad as a constellation of three sub-clinical traits of Machiavellism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy attracts researcher’s attention in the recent decades. The Dark triad is associated with exploitive and manipulate behavior, and limited empathy. Most studies showed connections of the Dark Triad traits with other personality and behavioral characteristics. However, studies about the perception of persons with "dark" personality are rare. The first purpose of this study is to reveal how people with the extreme manifestations of the Dark Triad traits perceive and evaluate Positive and Negative other people. The second is to analyze the association of the respondent’s traits with the evaluation and attitude to the Positive and Negative persons. The sample consists of 460 undergraduate students. Positive and Negative images of the other (video clip) were presented to the respondents. Then each image was evaluated by the (non)relevant characteristics of the Dark Triad and the cognitive, behavioral, and emotional components of the attitude. Also, respondents were diagnosed with Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy. The polarization of assessments and attitudes toward Positive and Negative images of the others were discovered. The role of the negative traits of the respondents was manifested. Higher values of the Dark Triad traits make the Negative image more complex and difficult to evaluate in opposition "good-bad" The cognitive component of attitude toward Positive and Negative image become closer for respondents with high Dark triad traits.

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Burlakova N.S., Oleshkevich V.I. Prospects for integration of social and clinical-psychological conceptual systems for elaboration of systematical cultural-historical research

System cultural-historical analysis of social phenomena and examination of social implications and basic social structures in general clinical psychological works are still underrepresented in modern psychology. Fundamental undertakings of Russian cultural-historical psychology did not gain development, not least because the required methodology was not elaborated either. The article explores conceptual systems integrating social psychology, developmental and clinical psychology and their methodologies, which are important for advance developments in communication research, research of normal and abnormal self-awareness, etc. While examining clinical knowledge about personality along with cultural-historical conditions of its shaping, we discover new social-cultural dynamics of its shaping. In this context, the article analyzes major role that traumatizing experience and its comprehension play for development of new forms of psychological knowledge and of sociality, including sociality of the inner world, world of self-awareness. Based on the analysis of development of clinical-psychological knowledge, the article discusses the perspectives for construction of cultural-historical research at the intersection of social, developmental and clinical psychology, that would significantly raise level and quality of psychological research. The contributing factors for development of such a research are: 1) analysis of new forms of sociality both in the theoretical conceptions and organizational practice of psychological research; 2) combination of different methods and tools (including objective, phenomenological, dialogical-hermeneutical, etc.) for examination of cultural-historical objects as psychological theory, personality, peculiarities of psychological disorder and patient’s inner world. The article concludes with perspectives of further development of cultural-historical research based on the experience of its concrete realization performed by the authors. That could lead to shaping of complex, but methodologically transparent technology for its realization.

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Chebakova Yu.V., Parshukov A. Yu., Sekova O.S. Features of the processing of social context during generalization in patients with schizotypic disorder

The subject of this research is a study of the correlation between actualization of latent, including subjective, features of object with specific deficit of social context in patients with schizotypic disorder. Were manifested the different ways of an actualization of a social context depending on stimulus material. Was differentiated a latent type of generalization. In research took a part 82 respondents: 20 patients with schizotypic disorder, 20 patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 42 research participants without mental disorders. Was applied the modified variant of experimental technique "Exclusion of objects" including two series of tests involving the variation of semantic connections between the objects and strengthening of hidden, connotative, emotionally loaded properties of objects. The main study findings describe the specifics of deficit of the processing of social context in schizotypic disorder compared with paranoid patients and control sample: 1) in patients with schizotypic disorder was identified the deficit of a specific, socially significant, typical internal context is shown with relative keeping of the objective social typical context; 2) in study groups was found out heterogeneity of responses by the type of latent generalization outside the given "key": respondents from clinical groups based on subjective, individual experience and accidental features; control sample – on secondary, but objective features and on the social, cultural and universalistic experience; 3) in group of patients with schizotypic disorder was shown a deficit of the processing of negative emotional context at intactness of the positive emotional context in contrast to the sample of patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

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Nasledov A.D., Miroshnikov S.A., Tkacheva L.O. Identification of prognostic markers of developmental delay in 5-year-olds

This article is a continuation of our previous publication dedicated to 4-year-old children. This article presents an analysis of the factor structure of abilities of 5-year-old children with scales elaboration which differentiate most accurately typically developing children of this age ("Norm") and children with developmental delay ("DD"). The sample of the research consisted of 604 children (527 of Norm and 53 of DD group). To identify points which most significantly separate groups ("Norm" and "DD") stepwise procedures of discriminant and factor analysis were used with subsequent verification of the reliability of isolated factors-scales and eventually the predictive model was constructed using SEM. As a result, a set of predictors was selected, which are reliable markers of DD of 5year-olds. The set of these predictors broadly coincides with the predictors for 4-year-olds and includes the following main components (in descending order of their contribution to the prediction): "Logical judgment", "Motor Skills", "General awareness". Scales corresponding to these components form a general scale in conjunction with age which allows precise indicating DD’ "risk group". As a result of standardization, test standards were developed for this general scale which demonstrates high sensitivity of the prediction of DD (90.9%) when the value of the specificity of the Norm prediction is 94%. The final conclusion is that the only predictor of the diagnosis (Norm or DD) is G-factor, the indicators of which are the selected scales. The opportunity of using the obtained standards for the rapid identification of the "risk group" for further differential diagnosis among 5-year-olds is proposed.

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Zakharova A.V. N.Zhinkin’s thesis for candidate’s degree: content and its place in his scientific career

The paper is an attempt to analyze and provide an overview of unpublished thesis of a well-known psychologist and linguist Nikolay Zhinkin, titled "Intonation in connection with general issues of expression" (1944–1947). The author deploys the circumstances of Zhinkin’s biography related to writing the thesis, its purpose and objectives, its role in experimental study of intonation, planned by the scientist. The author describes the structure of the thesis and outlines principal content of its chapters. Special attention is given to Zhinkin’s analysis of theoretical approaches applied by psychologists, logicians, linguists and art experts while studying the expression phenomena. The author explains the importance of multidisciplinary approach towards understanding expression, repeatedly highlighted by Nikolay Zhinkin in his study. Apart from special comments on proportion of chapters devoted to expression and intonation in the thesis, the author provides Zhinkin’s arguments for more in-depth expression research aiming to clarify the role of intonation in a variety of expressive means. Special attention is given to the concept of "speech action" introduced by N.Zhinkin to explain the phenomena of expression and intonation. The author briefly describes the structure of action as a general concept to highlight the suggestion made by the linguist and psychologist about expression as the essential means of accomplishing an action. The author emphasizes Zhinkin’s applying both psychological and linguistic approaches, concepts and terminology for describing the phenomena of intonation serving as one of expressive means in the action structure. The author briefly outlines the role of Nikolay Zhinkin’s unpublished thesis in creating his later, currently widely-known works. Basing on particular significance of the study, firstly fully combining his experience in psychology and theory of art for examining a linguistic object, the hypothesis presented is that the thesis forms a transfer and link between two periods of Zhinkin’s scientific career: psychological and linguistic.

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Pryaznikov N.S., Molchanov S.V., Kirsanov K.A. Moral and value bases of the process of professional self-determination in adolescence

Professional and personal self-determination is the key task of adolescence and is associated with the search for a person's value and sense basis of his life. The research is aimed to study the role of value priorities in the process of professional self-determination in adolescence. The success of professional self-determination can be operationalized in the form of the status of identity in the profession (E.Erikson, D.Marcia) and personal professional perspective (E.Klimov, N.S.Pryazhnikov). The tasks of the empirical research included determining the characteristics of adolescents' professional self-determination and studying the connection between the characteristics of adolescent value preferences and the level of professional self-determination. The methods of determining the personal professional perspective of N.S.Pryazhnikov (as modified by O.A.Karabanova, V.S.Vologzhanina); the method of determining the status of identity in the field of professional self-determination of D.Marcia in the modification of O.A.Karabanova, V.R.Orestova; technique of value orientations of S.Schwartz were used. The study involved 144 people aged 15 to 17 years, including 48% of boys and 52% of girls. The unevenness of the formation of the components of the personal professional perspective was revealed. The status of identity in the field of professional self-determination was identified. Differences in the significance of the values of "achievement", "universality-tolerance", "independence of thoughts" and "independence of actions" between groups of adolescents differing in the maturity of professional self-determination were found. The obtained results confirm the hypothesis about the role of the value factor in the success of professional self-determination in adolescence. The high status of identity in the profession (moratorium and achieved identity) is combined with the high importance of the values of "achievement" and "universalism-tolerance" and the high level of formation of the components of personal professional perspective is consistent with the importance of the values of "achievement", "independence of thoughts and actions".

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Soldatova G.U., Chigarkova S.V., Kulesh E.V., Tikhomirov M.Yu. Ethnosocial and personal predictors of intercultural communication in residents of Russian cities with different ethnic composition of the population

The article is devoted to the study of ethnosocial and personal predictors of the direction of intercultural communication. The relevance of the study is due to the need for a deeper understanding of the factors determining the success of an individual in a variety of cultural contexts, in connection with the development of globalization processes and the intensification of intercultural interaction. The success of intercultural communication can due to a number of personal characteristics. The purpose of this research is to study a number of personal characteristics (ethnic identity, tolerance and cultural intelligence) affecting the success of intercultural communication among Russian (N = 1095) living in cities with different ethnic composition of the population: monoethnic (Moscow, Volgograd, Khabarovsk), biethnic (Kazan) and multiethnic (Makhachkala). The study revealed the features of intercultural communication in cities with different ethnic composition based on a number of indicators: language identity, knowledge of languages, intensity of intercultural communication, intercultural social capital, abroad experience, subjective assessment of the impact of cultural diversity on the team, overall self-assessment of the success of the experience intercultural interaction. The highest level of the most parameters were demonstrated by residents of the biethnic and polyethnic regions. In a comparative study of indicators of cultural intelligence, tolerance and severity of types of ethnic identity, the significance of the influence of the factor of the ethnic composition of the city’s population on these phenomena was established. The most obvious differences concern the interviewed residents of biethnic and polyethnic cities compared to monoethnic cities. Positive ethnic identity and tolerance is higher among residents of biethnic and polyethnic cities than monoethnic cities with a predominance of the Russian population. At the same time, the level of heterogeneity of the ethnic composition of the population can ambiguously influence the indicators of cultural intelligence: for example, the biethnic composition of the population contributes to the highest level of cultural intelligence, while multiethnic reduces its level.

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Tikhomandritskaya O.A., Malysheva N.G., Shaekhov Z.D., Kabalnov N.A. Theoretical interpretation of the relationship between personal values and psychological well-being among high school students

The problem of wellbeing of the person, main types of wellbeing is considered (social, economic, psychological), features of objective and subjective wellbeing are distinguished, the review of theoretical approaches to studying of psychological wellbeing within anthropocentric model is presented. The main works, of both foreign and domestic authors, devoted to the analysis of happiness as a significant component of subjective wellbeing are considered. The examples of successful people description received during the empirical researches are given. Two main approaches to understanding of an essence of wellbeing are allocated: hedonistic and eudemonistic. The multidimensional model of psychological wellbeing of the American psychologist Carol Riff developed within eudemonistic approach is presented. Attention is paid to social, social and psychological and personal factors of psychological wellbeing, with emphasis on the importance of values as regulators of social behavior. The short description of social and personal values specifics, roles of values in knowledge of social reality, in creation of the world image is given. The modified model of universal contents and structure of values of S.Schwartz, in which values act as evaluation criteria of various events, people and persons themselves, is presented. The assumption is formulated that personal values determine assessment of the wellbeing, give the opportunity to compare the desirable to real and by that to define for themselves the importance of the reached results. At the same time values give sense to achievements of the person which can affect features of the emotional experience and understanding of the wellbeing level. Need of the analysis of values and psychological wellbeing relations of the senior teenagers is proved as at this age there is an active formation of valuable structure of the personality.

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Martsinkovskaya T.D., Kiseleva E.A. Socialization and acculturation in the transitive space

It is considered the specificity of acculturation and socialization of young people in situations of transitivity with different degrees of rigidity - from crisis to melted and stable. The leading role of the positive emotional experience in relation to one's own and foreign cultures and the close relationship between the native culture and language is shown. The importance of sociocultural identity in the current situation of rigid transitivity and its positive role in socialization and acculturation in comparison with ethnic identity is proved. Research possibilities and limitations of myths and fairy tales in the process of analyzing the specifics of modern socialization and enculturation are revealed. The significance of A.A. Potebna and G.G. Shpet theories in analyzing the role of culture in the process of person’s formation is shown. Seven criteria that determine the successful process of social and group socialization are revealed. The results obtained in empirical study of changes in emotional experience towards oneself and others after change of residence as well as the dynamics of ethnocentrism in different regions are described. In the study, which took place in 2015–18, were involved: young people of Karelian and German nationality living in Russia, the CIS, Finland and Germany, as well as young people living in large cities in Russia, Germany and France. In the course of the research, were obtained the materials concerning the attitudes toward the native and alien cultures, as well as materials that reveal the structure of sociocultural identity and attitudes toward people of an alien culture. The obtained results confirmed the close connection between concepts about language and culture, which is actualized in a situation of rigid transitivity. Emotional experiences in relation to one's own and foreign culture can be considered as an indicator of the degree of socialization and acculturation. Differences between the assessment of concrete people of a foreign culture and the overall assessment and attitude to a large group of people of a different culture and language are associated with ethnocentrism. An assumption is made about the possibility of constructing a model of complementary, corresponding and orthogonal cultures.

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Egorova M.S., Parshikova O.V. General factor of personality

The general factor of personality (GFP) or Big One was introduced by Musek who considered it to be the central concept in the Pyramidal Model of Personality – the new hierarchical structural model of personality traits, representing a revision of the prevalent structural models. According to this model the GFP is the result of shared variance among factor-level personality traits. It sits at the apex of the personality hierarchy and is similar to factor g (general factor of intelligence), but for the non-cognitive traits. The GFP has positive and negative poles: in terms of the Five Factor Model the high level of the GFP is the result of the high level of Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness to the Experience. The interpersonal variation in GFP is analyzed in two frameworks. Evolutionary Life History Theory understands the GFP as a complex trait connected with social adjustment and thus ensuring success of survival, maturation and reproduction. Personality theories connect the GFP with prosocial orientation providing positive self-concept, positive world view, social effectiveness and life satisfaction. Over the past 10 years the GFP was intensively studied and actively debated. The present review of the GFP studies shows that there are evidences for the existence of a GFP, though sometimes one-factor structure is not replicated and confirmative factor analysis and multitrait-multimethod studies receive less definite results. The sources of the GFP also are still the question for the discussion. The common variation of factor-level traits may be the consequence of the statistical artifacts, halo effects, social desirability and self-esteem.

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Martsinkovskaya T.D. Psychological aspects of technological society

The psychological content of transitivity and its phenomenology is analyzed. The problem of the world-image in a modern technological society is considered. It is shown that from the point of view of psychological parameters of the image of the world, it is possible to state significant civilizational changes, since the internalization of technology took place. Modern technical and informational space, first of all, the Internet, became one of the aspects of the content of the world-image and even the self-image. Modern ways of communication and movement significantly changed people's ideas about space and time, which had an important impact not only on the cognitive component of the image of the world, but also on emotional well-being and attitude to new technological achievements and new cultures. The data received in empirical studies of the influence of identity styles and ways of processing information on the attitude to new information technologies and tolerance to the new technological and information space are presented. It is shown that the information style of identity, along with a digital style of perceiving information, is one of the most important factors influencing the positive attitude to new technologies and the plurality of sociocultural contexts of the modern world. At the same time, the leading factor that determines tolerance to new technologies is the experience of working with them and a professional motivation. These factors do not depend on the age and style of identity. Acceptance of a new technological society is reflected in the content of a personal page in social networks, which in many respects is identical to the image of the world, helping to optimize relations with the world and other people.

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2018 Vol. 11 Issue 61