Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya. Current Issue Articles

Martsinkovskaya T.D. The language of art and the language of science: the paradoxes of convergence

Three paradoxes related to the analysis of the connection between the languages ​​of science and art are revealed. The first paradox demonstrates that often the language of science is more emotionally saturated than the language of art. The second paradox is proving that often the substantiation of fundamentally new discoveries in science occurs with the help of the language of art or within it. The third paradox states that artists use the language of science to explain their insights. Examples that reveal the emotional fullness of scientific texts and rationality in the presentation of their works by artists are given. The variants of the scientist’s papers written in an artist’s manner and vice versa artist’s texts written with the help of scientist’s language are presented. Thus, the pictures of artists confirm the results of scientific observations, data about factors that determine the development of perception of painting and music. On the other hand, artists actively used the discoveries of scientists to substantiate new types of art. It is proved that all these paradoxes are connected not so much with the limitations of the languages of science or art, but rather with the fact that scientists and artists are striving not only to make a discovery, but also to introduce it to a wide range of people. The connection and differences of languages within art and science are shown, the specificity of languages in different fields of art and science is revealed. It is also proved that the desire to expand the circle of people who accept and understand the author can also lead to the expansion of the language of a particular field of science or art. The language of a particular type of art or field of science is always limited, but in order to solve new problems and describe new discoveries, it is necessary to go beyond concrete language, transition to an interdisciplinary area; the language must borrow some codes, structure, set of internal forms from another language and restructure them for a new task. An analysis of such universal code linking the languages of science and art can become a new direction in the study of the languages of science and art.

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Markov A.V. To the Russian psychology of perception: cinema in the early symbolism

Criticism of associative thinking was explained in early Russian symbolism, which sought to rehabilitate contemplation and the experience of eternity. Naive rehabilitation was impossible, and although later symbolism denied the expressive possibilities of cinematography, early symbolism rated cinema as medium of contemplation, alternative to the novel organization of motivations and actions. In this case, since it is not clear who is contemplating, the camera or the viewer, it was possible to perceive the cinema only within lyrical poetics, in which the ideal contemplates itself and it is possible to switch from the ideal to the actor without changing the aspect. The legacy of Russian poetry, in which the contemplation of unique natural phenomena could be contrasted with the contemplation of the multiplicity of the world, turned out to be the best preparation for understanding the cinematic media. The early Russian symbolist Ivan Konevskoy created the first ekphrasis of the film, under the guise of a plot poem, and challenged Maeterlinck's aesthetic program, opposing it to the effects of cinematic perception of unique things. Thus, in Russian symbolism, new ideas were created about the difference between associative thinking and imagination: associative thinking started to be considered axiologically, with insist on the value of the first impressions, whereas imagination was drawing closer to contemplation, in which axiology turns out to be only one aspect in the figurative series, whereas the self-knowledge of the Spirit is contemplated, but not the consequences of its presence. Thus, symbolism established a new critical norm of contemplation, which should be taken into account in analyzing the Russian idealistic philosophy of that time, and contributed to the further development of the psychology of perception that culminated in the projects of Shpet and Vygotsky.

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Poleva N.S. Art as a language and as communication

The article traces continuity in the development of ideas of The State Academy of Arts (in Russian: GAKhN), reveals those areas of her research that turned out to be the most significant in the time perspective. One of these areas is the study of The Language of Art. Comparative analysis of the main ideas of the works by N.I.Zhinkin during his work in GAKhN, as well as during the second half of the 20th century prove the continuity in the development of language problems, "expression", the formation of meanings and senses, their transmission in the process of communication. The key attention in this article is given to the analysis of the concept of "language of inner speech" by N.I.Zhinkin and the concept of "auto-communication" by Yu.M. Lotman, which are regarded as the directions of language research precisely in the context of continuity of ideas of GAKhN. Different methodological approaches of these scientists lead them to complementary conclusions: the language of art emerges on the basis of natural language and has characteristics similar to the main features of the language of inner speech and the language of the auto-communication system. At the same time, art is both language, speech and code (Zhinkin); message and code (Lotman) and uses always two channels of communication - in the system "I–He" and in the system "I–I". In Zhinkin's works this is: "double speech" – "the subject-schematic code of inner speech" and "expressive speech." According to Lotman, the regularities in the functioning of a literary text are the laws governing the functioning of art and culture, communication in which is built simultaneously through two channels with a greater or lesser tendency toward one of them. Auto-communication is an important fact not only of psychology, but of culture in general. In the channel of auto-communication (in culture and in the individual consciousness) new codes, meanings and senses are generated and the already existing ones are being modified. "I–I" as a channel of communication in time is considered, along with experiences, as a mechanism ensuring the preservation of the integrity of individual and sociocultural identity, as well as the harmonization of the individual and group psychological chronotopes through the restoration of the "connection of times".

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Khoroshilov D.A. Art and social psychology: from experimental aesthetics to the aesthetic paradigm

The article reveals the significance of art and aesthetics in the history of social psychology. The problem of artistic perception was the field of interest to G.T.Fechner, W.Wundt, T.Lipps, who were the founders of psychological aesthetics. From the numbers of interpretations of art formulated in modern aesthetics, we have chosen the anthropological definition of C.Geertz, according to which art is a symbolic expression of cultural experience, which meaning should be understand in the context of everyday life and social imagination. This definition allows us to consider art in the specific way of the psychology of social cognition and the psychology of everyday life. It is shown that all paradigms and theories of social cognition of the twentieth century (psychoanalysis, neobihaviorism, social neuroscience, interactionism and constructionism) somehow appealed to aesthetics. In the modern epistemological situation of pluralism and polyparadigmality, it becomes possible to talk about the convergence of scientific and artistic cognition, that has been predicted earlier in the aesthetic and psychological concepts of L.S.Vygotsky and G.Shpet before the era of postmodernism. The formula of G.Shpet, according to which art is «not only a correlate and addition to objective knowledge serving to broaden our cultural outlook», but also a way of restoring the unity of cultural existence [Shpet, 2006, p. 34], becomes central to the aesthetic paradigm. The scientists, who work in the aesthetic paradigm make a turn to the languages of art as ways of representing the transformations of social cognition in a transitive society. The aesthetic paradigm is a belated response to the A.Warburg’s proposal to create a history of the psychology of human expression that will unite the efforts of various sciences and art in the way of a holistic understanding of man. The openness of an artistic work (as well as a scientific concept) to some different interpretations, proclaimed by the aesthetic paradigm following U.Eco, corresponds to the uncertainty of the actual historical situation.

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Ermolaeva M.V., Lubovskii D.V. Eudemonistic approach to the catharsis of tragic in painting

The phenomenon of catharsis that occurs in perception of the tragic in art, is analyzed. Based on the eudemonistic understanding of catharsis and tracing the cultural and historical aspects of the problem, the authors show that catharsis as an aesthetic and psychological phenomenon arose in antiquity for facilitation the acceptance of the need for the death of the Self for revival in a new life, and only later was interpreted by Aristotle as a spiritual purification. The analysis of modern interpretations of catharsis shows that their basis is the eudemonistic approach. Taking as a basis the cultural and historical approach in the psychology of art, the authors on the example of expressionistic painting and its early origins (M.Grunewald, E.Munch, E.Schiele, P.Picasso) analyze in detail the catharsis arising in the perception of tragic artworks. It is shown that the eudemonistic approach to the essence of catharsis allows for the reflection of those complex feelings that cause paintings depicting fear of despair and hopelessness. The perception of tragedy in the work of painting raises the question "In the name of what?" The psychological functions of the tragic catharsis for the viewer are acceptance of the inevitable, acceptance of personal responsibility for the evil created in the world, search for meaning, struggle with despair, resistance to chaos, evil and destruction. The authors show that the tragic in art, including painting, creates an aesthetic space that penetrates into the living space of the viewer and creates the possibility of expanding the semantic horizon and spiritual renewal. In the aesthetic space of the tragic painting, the particular circumstances of human life are amplified, acquiring a universal meaning and value dimension.

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Guseltseva M.S. Transformation of modernity in the mirror of art: new horizons of epistemological turns

The visual turn is seen as an integrative methodological strategy through which current transformations of the present can be analyzed and the experience of psychology and art history in studying changes in human subjectivity is combined. The visuality is one of the key characteristics of our era. Everyday life is full of visual information, the dominant language has been replaced by a powerful image impact in the context of the information culture. Under the influence of visual turn images began to be studied as multi-layered, medial, related to sense, serving sources of meaning and symbolization products. Step by step they became the dominant structure of modern culture where the change in educational technology, advertising, propaganda, all sorts of influences on the psyche to influence behavior were based on visual practices. In the analysis of the features of modern socialization of the younger generations processes in the course of which images embodied in certain cultural phenomena become internal images of the subject come to the fore. Implicit and not always obvious to contemporaries of the transformation of cultural and psychological reality eluding theoretical understanding, reflected in visualizations that more clearly marked the change of representations and paradigms. In the forefront of art and cultural sciences the 20th century began with the avant-garde and ended postmodernism. Understanding the psychology of avant-garde trends in the art of the 20th century is able to tell about those changes in the psyche, the transformations of culture and subjectivity that occur to the person at the present time. A key definition of these changes was the idea of the transitivity of everyday life and the fluidity of consciousness.

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Tang F. Inter-generational conflicts and approaches to their management among different generations in China

The continued globalization and internationalization of erstwhile regional and local markets and workplaces have given rise to issues of intercultural and intergenerational conflict, as the workplace becomes both more generationally and culturally diverse. With the growing financial influence of China on the world stage, there is an understanding that erstwhile approaches to studying intergenerational differences and sources of conflict in Western cultures may need to be modified to better account for how factors like social hierarchy, age dynamics and filial piety interact in non-Western contexts. For countries like China, growing business and trade ties might often lead to workplace conflicts or misunderstandings, as individuals from different generations and cultures interact in diverse contexts. Businesses, meanwhile, do not have enough data to formulate effective policies and training programs to mitigate possible conflicts. The current study sought to address this gap by employing a scenario-based semi-structured questionnaire that incorporated participant-generated bubble dialogues to study the approaches of 73 Chinese professionals from younger and older generational cohorts towards intergenerational conflict management at the workplace. The results indicate that while older Chinese participants prefer to avoid sources of conflict, or approach them in a more confrontational manner, their younger counterparts prefer more active approaches that stress cooperation and are more solutions-based. The findings also suggest that younger respondents are less constrained by age-related hierarchical considerations when faced with potential sources of conflict that involve older individuals.

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Lukyanchenko N.V. Family identity of women from incomplete families

In modern society, with its contradiction between the value of freedom and mental competition of the normativity of different ways of life identity research can be a means of social self-understanding. In the issues of identity, the family, which takes multiple forms, is an exciting object for researcher’s attention. The identity of members of different family groups should reflect the self-conceptualization of their system, determined by the attitude towards their social status.  The incomplete family now has a contradictory social status. Researches of single-parent families in the Humanitarian sciences are mostly devoted to the problems of education and socialization. In addition, it is almost never considered how an adult member of incomplete family identifieshimself in his marital status. According to this, a research of the family identity of women from incomplete families was carried out.  Family identity is understood as a subjective image of belonging to a family group, reflecting the characteristics of the group and its functioning in it andin the structural, emotional and cognitive aspects.  Components of family identity were revealed with the help of diagnosticsystem, which includes the ideographic methodologies. The following features of the family identity of women from incomplete families are revealed: identification of the family, first of all, as herself with  a child with a possible prospect of increasing its structure, strong self-determination in the family hierarchy with a passive position in the system of interaction; high emotional co-importance is mostly low, up to rejection of the importance of the "spouse", which comes to conflict with his declared desirability, the perception of her family as a cohesive, kind in relations and modest in its group’s demonstrations – as a caring, kind, determined family member. Both and herself and her  familynegative characteristics can be attributed.. This kind of character of family identity is determined by the shortage of its social status, serves as its subjective «justification», and at the same time supports it.

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Kornienko D.S., Rudnova N.A. Online social network usage, procrastination and self-regulation

Nowadays online social networks (Facebook, VKontake, etc.) are the part of modern life, but they are also the cause of achievement (especially academic) decline. Self-regulation and procrastination are the characteristics that can be defined as personality factors in online social network use. Procrastination is conceptualized as postponing some actions crucial to the timely completion of assignments or as a "voluntarily delay". It is defined as a self-regulatory failure, representative of low conscientiousness, high impulsivity, and thought control problems. There is some evidence of the negative role of procrastination as well as low self-regulation in academic achievements. At the same time relations between procrastination and self-regulation are still unclear. This study analyses personality factors: procrastination and self-regulation as predictors of online social network (OSN) usage intensity and intrusion. The sample consists of 321 users of OSN VKontakte, from 17 to 60 ages. OSN usage assessed by OSN Intensity scale and OSN Intrusion scale. The features of procrastination and self-regulation were also measured. Based on correlation and regression analyses was found that sex and procrastination are significant predictors of OSN intensity and intrusion. Sex differences in OSN usage were clarified. This study shows that women are more tend to use OSN and reveal negative aspects (relation, emotional, work problems) of intensity and intrusion of online social network usage.

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Shchukina M.A, Yakovleva I.V., Kraynyukov S.V., Tyutyunnik E.I., Bondareva M.O., Averyanova O.Yu. Features of the visual self-presentation of participants of business communication in the virtual educational environment

The research devoted to identification of implicit representations and the realized strategy in the visual self-presentation of users in communicative space of business virtual network of institution of higher education is described. In the first part the content analysis of images on personal pages of the educational portal was applied to identification of specifics of the self-presentation of students and teachers/employees in the context of business communication (n=1107, 86 teachers, 21 employee and 1000 students). In the second part of a research the technique of specialized semantic differential for which development a method of personal constructs of J.Kelly and expert assessment of 35 students and 15 teachers was used was applied to assessment of the categorial structures of consciousness which are staticized at perception of images on the educational portal. Assessment of images by the developed technique is carried out with the assistance of 300 respondents (250 students and 50 teachers). The made research procedures allow to conclude that most of users of the portal use the style of the self-presentation adequate to the business nature of educational interaction in educational network. It is the primary choice of a photo with the good sharpness and illumination representing one person on a neutral monophonic background the size on a belt or a bust in a foreshortening a fullface or three quarters looking at the viewer with a smile/half-smile and without additional accessories. At the same time features of the self-presentation of a part of the users (mainly from among students) who are ignoring or not understanding a business context of communication in the educational environment are marked out. They choose the playful, protective, seksualizirovanny or distorted self-presentation way characteristic of communication on social networks. At the level of representations and expectations to the presentation of partners in communication it is revealed the positive attitude both teachers, and students towards official and informative style of the shown images. At the same time students, unlike teachers, perceive informal and symbolized images with the expressed emotional expression more positively.

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Druzhilov S.A. The negative impact of the modern information environment: the psychological aspects

The problems of clogging up the information environment false and malicious information, as well as its purposeful dissemination through social networks are considered. An analysis of existing opinions on the harmful psychological impact of information on the personality, as well as the possibilities of realizing these impacts in modern conditions is carried out. The information influence influences the behavior of a person through the psyche, changing the components of consciousness of personality. The form of negative information impact analyzed in the article is manipulation. The targets of manipulative actions are consciousness, a picture of the world, a world outlook, a person's life position. Her targets are consciousness, a picture of the world, a worldview, a person's life position. Ways to achieve results: distortion of information; disinformation; personification; filtration; individualization of the impact. The main mechanisms of information distortion are considered. The creation and distribution of "false news" appears as a way of manipulating consciousness. With the individualized determination of information retrieval, the results on the user's request are built based on the analysis of his location, the history of searches and adherences. The user is presented only with information that is consistent with his previous views. Filtering algorithms make personalized news feed of the user from the news stream; through information filters, the user is isolated in his own information bubble. Arises is an effect of the echo camera, which fixes the worldview inherent in man and distorts the picture of reality. Information technologies allow individualizing a psychological effect on a person using the personification of data about him. The basis of personification is the "digital traces", left by the user in the electronic databases of the Internet. As part of information pollution, there are: 1) redundant information; 2) misinformation. Information pollution can be not only a by-product, but also be created consciously and purposefully. These are false, fabricated, propaganda news. Increasing the pressure of information technologies on the individual increases the importance of information ecology in protecting a person from information that pollutes the information environment.

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Nasledov A.D., Miroshnikov S.A., Tkacheva L.O. Identification of prognostic markers of developmental delay in 4-year-olds

The aim of the study was to identify the predictive markers of developmental delay (DD) in 4-year-olds to elaborate a reliable, valid and easy to use scale of prediction of the developmental vector (Norm, DD). A sample of 4-year-old children attending kindergartens consisted of 575 children of Norm group and 53 children of DD group. A system of test tasks consisting of 236 points was used for the assessment of social, cognitive and motor development of children. Of these, 20 points were selected as a result of the consistent application of factor and discriminant analysis, which best divided Norm and DD groups. These points were grouped into scales - predictive markers (PM) of DD, presented in descending order of their contribution to the prediction: "Logical reasoning", "Motor skills", "General awareness”. High accuracy of prediction (up to 96%) indicates a dramatic gap in the level of development of the groups (Norm and DD). This may be due to the late diagnosis of problems of children's development in Russia. As a result of standardization, test norms for these scales have been obtained, allowing the usage of the method as a reliable and valid diagnostic tool for differentiation of delayed development from the normal one. The elaborated method is designed for the rapid identification of "risk group" among 4-years children for the purpose of further more accurate diagnosis of the developmental deviations by profile specialists.

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