Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya • ISSN 2075-7999
peer-reviewed • open access journal
      

 

Eidelman G.N., Sergienko E.A. The role of subjective factors in the psychological well-being of youth in the situation of professional self-determination


EIDELMAN G.N., SERGIENKO E.A. THE ROLE OF SUBJECTIVE FACTORS IN THE PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF YOUTH IN THE SITUATION OF PROFESSIONAL SELF-DETERMINATION
Full text in Russian: Эйдельман Г.Н., Сергиенко Е.А. Роль субъективных факторов в психологическом благополучии молодежи в ситуации профессионального самоопределения

Moscow Region State University, Moscow, Russia
Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

About authors
Suggested citation


In this paper the problem of psychological well-being of young people in a situation of professional self-determination in the modern world was studied. The study involved 273 residents of Moscow and Moscow region at the age of 20–30 years old in the situation of professional self-determination. Psychological well-being was studied by means of "psychological well-being scale" offered by K.Riff. Perception of themselves, the world, attitude to their age, life position, comparison themselves with ideal were accepted as subjective factors considered. This paper presents the results of the factor and regression analyses. It was found that the basic psychological need during a period of professional self-determination of the youth  enhancing psychological well-being is the connection with other people, what compensates a lack of professional competence. The subjective view of the world is considered as a component of the human resource system. The results of the factor analysis and regression analysis are represented and revealed both objective and subjective factors influenced on the psychological well-being. It was showed that subjective factors determine psychological well-being during the period of professional self-determination to a greater extent than the social and economic factors. The role of subjective factors, reflecting the degree of achievement of the ideal, more essential than the role of the subjective assessment of ourselves and the ambient world. It was found that, depending on the sphere of psychological well-being varies the set of predictors and impact of conditionality. A multidirectional impact on different areas of psychological well-being of such subjective factors as "degree of achievement of the ideal in the way Me" and "tolerance" is fixated. It is noted that such subjective factors as the attitude toward themselves, others and ourselves with the ideal comparison are self-motivators improving psychological well-being.

Keywords: subjective factors, professional self-determination, psychological well-being, human resource system, the subjective view of the world, self-motivation

 

The situation of professional self-determination at a young age on the one hand is the natural age-related development objective of the subject, the successful solution of which increases personal and psycho-social identity, on the other hand acts as a source of high stress, negative emotional experiences, anxiety in a result of the forced choice of further way of life and the unwillingness of the majority of young people to take responsibility for it. This period of  young people crisis now is aggravated by instability in education field, economic and financial problems of society, the uncertainty in world politics. Under these conditions the study of modern factors of influence on psychological well-being of young people during the start their life, finding the motivation resources are the subjects of particular relevance.

Subjective factors in the psychological well-being

The positive psychology to date has accumulated a wide array of empirical data on the various factors affecting the psychological well-being (E.Diner, C.Lyubomirski, K.Riff, K.Sheldon, I.Bonivell, D.A.Leontev). However, research in this area focused mainly on the impact of external events and the objective conditions of life for the welfare [Lyubomirsky, 2007] or personal characteristics influenced by the effects of external factors [Deci, Ryan, 2008], what is insufficient for understanding the subjective choice mechanisms during self-determination.

Taking into account that the choice is made not only in accordance with the intellectual and personal characteristics of the subject [Kornilova et al., 2010], but also under the influence of subjective choice experience [Leontiev, Fam, 2011], and the situation of professional self-determination is often within existential choice (undetermined alternatives and criteria) [Leontiev, Pilipko, 1995], we can assume that the choice mechanism involves subjective factors, reflecting the relation of the subject to himself, to others and to reality.

Considering the subjective view of the world as one of the fundamental components that mediate the life activity of the subject, we have assumed that the representations of themselves and the world have significant contribution to the psychological well-being. More over age features and external crisis situation (in current case the situation of professional self-determination) reflecting on the subjective picture of the world bring the specifics as to the structure of psychological well-being [Sergienko, Eidelman, 2014], as to the model of the influence factors on the psychological well-being.

In addition we have assumed that the subjective factors together with the personal characteristics and the characteristics of the individual participate in the human resource system and can be considered as self-motivator to increase psychological well-being.

The aim of this study was to determine the role of subjective factors in the psychological well-being of young people in the situation of professional self-determination.

Participants

Investigation was made on the basis of sample of residents of Moscow and the Moscow region at the age of 20–30 years. The initial sample for the study of the specificity of the subjective picture of the world at a young age was 273 persons (128 men, 145 women, M = 24,3, SD = 4,1). To investigate the role of subjective factors in the psychological well-being in a situation of professional self-determination basing on the analysis of personal data in accordance with the presence of professional self-determination situations in life (job search, work at the last place during the period not more than 3 years and/or a desire to change jobs), the sample size was reduced to 235 persons (114 men and 121 women, M = 23,5, SD = 3).

The testing procedure was carried out individually or in small groups on a voluntary basis on the confident conditions. The procedure takes from 1,5 to 2,5 hours, depending on the respondent's individual characteristics. Psychologists monitored consistency and accuracy of filling out the forms.

Method of study

The situation of professional self-determination

Author questionnaire, aimed to study social economic status of the respondents and the availability of professional certainty at the time of testing (presence / absence of the job, persistence and work experience, job correspondence to their specialty) was developed to identify the situation of professional self-determination. Encoding method was used at the data processing.

The scale of psychological well-being  K.Riff

The scale of psychological well-being of K.Riff  under modification by Shevelenkova, P.P.Fesenko [Shevelenkova, Fesenko, 2005] allows to determine not only the degree of psychological well-being, but also its structure.  In our study instruction to the questionnaire was modified in order to obtain assessment of life satisfaction of the ideal man. Considering the difference in assessment between personal satisfaction in life and life satisfaction of the ideal man, not only as a measure to achieve the desired level, but also as a motivation to achieve psychological well-being, we have entered into the study an additional subjective parameter that must be taken into account in the correction and forecasting in the field of human psychological well-being.

Author projective method "Attitude to the world"

The method was developed to study the subject's  internal picture of the world [Eidelman, 2013], which is considered by us as the subjective factor of psychological well-being. Built on the semantic differential method it includes 20 subscales that conventionally grouped into 3 major scale: "Assessment of the world" (7 pairs) shows characteristics of emotional perception of the external world; "Inclusion in the World" (7 pairs) reflects the inclusion of the subject in the existing reality and a willingness to communicate with the world; "The stability of the world" (6 pairs) evaluates the outside world from a position of stability / variability, which stimulate the subject to action. The degree of preference (from -3 to 3 points) was determined for each subscale. When processing and analysis of the results the both the content side of the responses and the frequency of certain choices were taken into account. Analysis of the results was carried out both on the basis of each of the 20 subscales separately, and grouped main scales.

To test the uniformity and consistency of the selected scales confirmatory factor analysis for a set of 3 scales was used. The theoretical model for a set of 20 statements showed a good fit to the data (χ² = 1278,00, df = 155, p < 0,001; CFI = 0,944, RMSEA = 0,049), factor loadings were in the range of 0,54–0,78.

Personal differential

Test was developed on the basis of semantic differential at the Bekhnerev's Institute [Bazhin, Etkind, 1983] to assess themselves and the ideal image in the classic version includes 3 scales: rating scale reflects the level of self-esteem, self-acceptance, a satisfaction; power scale allows to evaluate the development of volitional aspects of the personality and inclination to use their own strength;  scale of activity reflects the level of activity (inactivity). Each scale contains a set of personality features that are measured on a 7-point scale. The difference in the evaluation itself and the ideal image is a measure of the achievement of the ideal, and the motivation to achieve it.

The application of factor analysis with orthogonal rotation method (Varimax) allowed to extract the 4 new subjective factors from the personality features proposed by Bazhin and Etkind: "Communication skills" combine the features that facilitate the effective communication; "Subject characteristics" reflect the features of a mature personality; "Tolerance" includes features that help to another person adoption; "Characteristics of self-organization" reflects the ability to manage his activitiy and enhance its effectiveness. Factor solution is substantial (cumulative % is 52,192%). The extent of applicability of factor analysis to the sample is within an acceptable adequacy (closer to high) (KMO = 0,799).

In the study of the influence of subjective factors to the psychological well-being of young people this factor solution has been used in professional self-determination of the situation.

Author projective method "Young age"

This method was developed on the basis of the incomplete proposals method proposed by D.Sachs and C.Levi [Sachs, Levi, 2000] our method includes 29 incomplete proposals conditionally grouped in 7 items: perception of their age (5  proposals), attitude to the generation (4 proposals), problems of the age (4 proposals),  joy of  the age (4 proposals),  age achivements (4 proposals), attitude to the future (4 proposals), unrealized potential (4 proposals). In accordance with the study  tasks we have analyzed and interpreted the following topics: perception of their age, attitude to the generation. In frame of the study of the perception of age following options were identified: a subjective biological age, the ideal age, the desired age, the emotional age rating. In frame of the study of attitude to the generation dominant life position determined by us as the ratio themselves assessment and their contemporaries have been analyzed.  Data processing was carried out using content analysis and coding: 1 – a negative attitude toward themselves or contemporary, 2 – neutral attitude toward themselves or contemporary, 3 – a positive attitude towards themselves or contemporary.

Data analyses

Statistical data processing, factor and regression analysis and analysis of existing relationships were made by using AMOS computer program (Annex SPSS 21).

Results

During the study it was found that in the period of self-determination among young people aged between 20 and 30 years old the psychological well-being (there is no decrease in performance on any of the scales SHPB) is recorded only for 37,4% (88/235 pers.) of the respondents. Reduced rates for one or two scales (it does not lead to a significant reduction in overall well-being index, but fixes a problem in the sphere of human life satisfaction) are observed for 38,7% of  respondents (91/235 pers.). Low rates of 3 scales and more were revealed for 23,8% of young people (56/235 pers.), which leads to a significant reduction in the overall psychological well-being index and is regarded as a state of psychological distress [Sergienko, Eidelman, 2015].

Analysis of the structure of psychological well-being showed that the most unsatisfied area of life at a young age was the area of relations with other people (33%). Areas of  goal-setting and awareness (29%), self-acceptance (27%), self-realization (26%) and control of environment (23%) have around the equal degree of dissatisfaction. The region of autonomy has lesser degree of dissatisfaction (18%), what, apparently, due to the subjective feeling of adequate independence of young people.

The results of research are comparable with those made by T.D.Shevelenkova and P.P.Fesenko [Shevelenkova, Fesenko, 2005]. Minor mismatches can be associated with a large dispersion of age in their study (18–35 years old) and the absence of fixation on the self-life situation.

Factor analysis

Factor analysis was conducted to study their impact on the psychological well-being of young people in the period of the life self-determination, which allowed to reduce the data of variables, and derive the most significant factors from the total quantity of the studied parameters.

Factor analysis in the field of social and economic indicators allowed to extract from the whole set only 3 factors:

1. Professional definiteness (percentage of explainable dispersion is 28,758%): availability of  job (0,917), financial independence (0,883), professional correspondence (0,849), work experience (0,842), income (0,505);

2. Family definiteness (percentage of explainable dispersion 14,954%): family existing (0,743), apartment authority (0,662), the presence of a loved one (0,574), the presence of children (0,452);

3. Social involvement (share explainable dispersion 10,860%): availability of hobbies in life (0,622), the presence of children (–0,615), the presence of friends (0,581).

Factorial solution is well fixed (cumulative percentage – 54,573%). The extent of applicability of factor analysis to the sample is within a reasonable adequacy (KMO = 0,744).

Enabling the option as "having children" in both second and third factors is caused by existence of children in the family life of the subject and in his social life. However, if the identity of the family grows with the birth of children, involvement in social life falls due to the additional responsibilities for the care of children and their parenting.

Such parameters of the study as sex and chronological age were considered as independent factors. The "education" as a factor of low influence (0,347) was not included in the extracted factors in further was not considered in the regression analysis. Perhaps the level of education among young people today during the period of professional self-determination plays a minor role in the professional identity. This may be due both to the quality of education, and the difficulties in finding employment in selected field.

Further such factors as "sex", "age", "professional definiteness", "Family definitions" and "social involvement " were considered by us as external and objective, unlike the factors, included in the group of subjective factors.

Factor analysis in the field of perception itself has allowed to find the best factor solution (cumulative percentage – 52,192%, KMO = 0,799) and extract from all data sets only 4 factors:

1. Communication skills (percentage of explainable dispersion is 18,662%): Communicative / silent (0,794), Sociable / unsociable (0,793), winsome / unattractive (0,715), Open / Closed (0,715), Active / slack (0,665), active / passive (0,664 ) Confident / unsure (0,417);

2. Subject characteristics (proportion of explainable dispersion is 11,902%): self-sufficing / non self-sufficing  (0,716), conscientious / irresponsible (0,657), independent / dependent (0,540), strong / weak (0,487) honest / insincere (0,487), Confident / unsure (0,461 ), fair / unfair (0,440);

3. Tolerance (percentage of explainable dispersion is 11,371%): Kind / selfish (0,656), friendly / hostile (0,640), Responsive / callous  (0,584), Stubborn / compliant (–0,524);

4. Characteristics of self-organization (the proportion of explainable dispersion is 10,257%):  Fidget / quiet (0,733), Stressed / relaxed (0,724), spitfire / imperturbable (0,653), Resolute / indecisive (–0,442), Confident / unsure (–0,436).

The inclusion of such personal characteristic as "Confident / unsure" at the same time in a 3 factor simultaneously indicates about multifunctionality of this characteristic. Confidence existing has a positive effect both on the process of communication, and in all human activity. Lack of confidence is becoming a significant obstacle on the way of life in general and professional self-realization.

Application of factor analysis to the field of ideal representation has allowed to extract 3 factors (cumulative percentage is 57,682%, KMO = 0,797):

1. The degree of achievement of the ideal in life satisfaction (percentage of explainable dispersion is 25,849%): a difference in the assessment of the ideal and own life from point of view the purpose of life (0,840), self-realization (0,812), total life satisfaction (0,807), control of environmental  (0,763), self-acceptance (0,586). Self-acceptance in this case should be understood as the attitude to yourself, your qualities and your experience;

2. The degree of achievement of the ideal in the image Me (the percentage of explainable dispersion is 18,959%): the difference between the estimates of the ideal man and himself in the field of communication skills (0,805), subjective characteristics (0,681), positivity of  relations (0,539). Since the satisfaction by relations is characterized by the adoption of a person by society, this indicator reflects the degree of approaching to the socially acceptable image;

3. The degree of achievement of ideal age (percentage of explainable dispersion is 12,874%): the difference between chronological and the ideal age (0,841) and the difference between chronological and the desired age (0,832).

Due to low load factor such factors as "the difference in the perception of itself and the ideal in tolerance" (0,387), "the difference in the perception of self and ideal under Interference" (0,314), and "the difference in the perception of self and ideal for autonomy "(0,311) were not included in the extracted parameters. This fact is explained by slight differences in the evaluation itself and ideal by these parameters at a young age, leading to a slight rise / descending rates and lower participation of these parameters in the joint variability.

Factor analysis in the field of perception of own age has allowed to extract from the entire data set 3 factors (cumulative percentage is 74,764%, KMO = 0,514):

1. Ideal age of Me (the percentage of explainable dispersion is 31,529%): the difference between the ideal and the real age (0,960), the difference between the desired and real age (0,570), ascertaining of the ideal age (0,950);

2. Subjective biological age (the percentage of explainable dispersion is 24,1%): the difference between the perceived and the real age (0,908), age identity (0,920);

3. Attitude to the age (the percentage of explainable dispersion is 19,134%): emotional evaluation of own age (0,828) and youth (0,778) as categories.

Connectivity parameters within each factor is high enough. The clear division is fixed in the perception of the ideal age, perceived in the emotional evaluation of the age too, what confirms the presence of differentiation in the subjective perception of age.

Based on the confirmatory analysis in the field of world perception we have identified 3 factors: Assessment of the world, involvement to the world, stability of the world, what later participated in the regression analysis.

As a separate independent factor, we considered life position of young people, which is defined as the ratio of assessment themselves and their peers.

Based on the model of "O'K Corral" [Ernst, 1971] and the model of tripartite position "I – You – They" [Davidson, 1999] in the framework of our investigation the new model "I–They" has been developed of, which takes into account the subject activity in the process of choice and reflects his life position [Eidelman, 2016].

Correlation analysis showed that life position is an integral part of the subjective world picture of a young man and is related to his psychological well-being (r = 0,466, p = 0,01). 

Regression analysis

In order to determine the effect of selected factors on psychological well-being regression analysis was performed. Indicator of psychological well-being was considered as a dependent variable. The independent variables were the following factors: gender, age, professional definiteness, family definiteness, social involvement, communication skills, subject characteristics, tolerance, characteristics of self-assessment, world estimation, inclusion to the world, world stability, life position, the degree of achievement of the ideal in life satisfaction, the degree of achievement of the ideal in the image Me, the degree of achievement of the ideal age, the ideal age of Me, subjective biological age, relation to the age.

Step selection procedure within regression analysis made it possible to identify the most important predictors of psychological well-being. Final regression model includes the following studied factors: the degree of achievement of the ideal in life satisfaction (–0,403), communication skills (0,313), involvement in the world (0,241), a life position (0,206), family certainty (0,145), the ideal age of Me (–0,127). Psychological well-being connection with the complex of significant independent variables is equal to 0,781. The value of R-square is 0,610, It demonstrates that 61% of dispersion of psychological well-being is under the influence of these factors. At the same time, degree of influence of predictors is not equal. The greatest weight is the degree of achievement of the ideal in life satisfaction. The lower difference between assessment of psychological well-being of themselves life and assessment of psychological well-being for ideally, the higher themselves life satisfaction. The smallest impact on the psychological well-being has conception of the ideal age. Considering the ideal and desired age as a lost opportunity (tendency of shift ideal (52%) and desired (47%) age downwards from chronological age is fixed), it is possible to establish the fact of influence of regret for lost opportunities in the psychological well-being. However, the presence of negative correlation suggests that psychological well-being increases with a regret decreasing about own age. From themselves reception area significant influence has only communication skills. Influence of subjective and tolerant qualities are so small that they are excluded from the overall regression model. Wherein perception of the world as real and "itself" (inclusion to the world) improves psychological well-being. As well as the endeavor to "healthy" life position ("I am OK, They are OK") has a positive effect on the psychological well-being. Influence of external objective factors on the psychological well-being is not significant. Only family certainty, which includes the presence of family, children, love object and apartment autonomy have positive, but a little effect on subjective life satisfaction (p = 0,05).

Considering the psychological well-being as a complex of human satisfaction in six key life areas (self-acceptance, environmental management, purpose in life, positive relations with others, personal growth, autonomy), we carried out a regression analysis to identify factors that may influence onto psychological well-being in each of these life areas. The results are shown in Table 1.

Table 1
The regression analysis results in various fields of psychological well-being

Factors Fields of psychological well-being
1 2 3 4 5 6
Family definiteness   0,233**        
Communication skills 0,314**   0,407** 0,355** 0,621**  
Subject characteristics     0,351**   0,290** 0,359**
Tolerance       0,163*   –0,204*
Life self-organization           –0,295**
Inclusion in the World 0,234** 0,163**        
Life position 0,221** 0,257** 0,183* 0,153*    
Degree of achievement of the ideal in life satisfaction –0,388** –0,383** –0,400**   –0,341**  
Degree of achievement of the ideal in the image I   –0,230** 0,342** –0,203* 0,444**  
Ideal age of Me –0,245**          
Subjective biological age       –0,218**    
Share of impact 56,6% 52,9% 49,8% 45,1% 43,4% 23,5%

Notes. 1 – Self-acceptance, 2 – Environmental management, 3 – Purpose in life, 4 – Positive relations with others, 5 – Personal growth, 6 – Autonomy; * – correlation level near 0,05, ** – correlation level near 0,01.


The analysis showed that such factors like gender, age, professional definiteness, social involvement, assessment of the world, the stability of the world, relation to the age do not affect or only slightly affect to the sphere of psychological well-being and are not included in the regression models as psychological well-being predictors in any of studied areas.

Both a direct and inverse relation with the predictors of the dependent variable were fixed, what indicates on predictors multidirectional impact. A change of influence direction of the same predictor in different areas of psychological well-being was revealed. For example, if the difference in the evaluation itself and the ideal decreased, satisfaction in relationships with loved ones (–0,203) and environmental management (–0,230) is growing, but in the field of goal-setting (0,342) and personal development (0,444) falls.

The biggest impact the studied complex of factors (56,6%) has on self-acceptance, what reflects not only the awareness and acceptance of own qualities, but also the satisfaction by own past, own actions and achievements. In this context, it is obvious effect on self-acceptance not only self-esteem, but also comparison itself with peers and with ideal image.

The smallest percentage of variance of the dependent variable (23,5%) is found in the area of personal autonomy, which is defined as the ability to withstand the pressure of the society, what could be due to the absence in the test set of independent variables that enhance the stability to external influence. However, considering the fact of greatest satisfaction in the area of autonomy from all areas of psychological well-being of young people, it can be assumed that this area is minimally influenced by both objective and subjective factors in the age of 20–30 years. This fact requires further study.

Discussion

The data of the psychological well-being of young people in professional self-determination period (62,5% or 147/235 pers. are in a state of complete or partial life dissatisfaction) make it possible to say about existence of the problem among today's youth of Moscow and the Moscow region and the lack of psychological stability of young people in crisis situation of self-determination.

The regression analysis results confirm the hypothesis that subjective factors influence on the level of psychological well-being of today's youth in the period of self-determination to a greater extent than socio-economic parameters.

The assumption on the impact of professional identity on the psychological well-being in the professional self-determination period has not been confirmed. The absence or temporary job, not professional job, low salaries, lack of financial independence from parents have not a significant impact on the overall level of psychological well-being and satisfaction in certain life areas. Hence, professional identity and self-realization in a profession cannot be seen by psychologists as a motivation to improve the psychological well-being in general and personal growth particularly in the age of 20–30 years.

Despite the different marital status of the respondents and the prevalence of unmarried  young people, "family definiteness ", which includes not only the presence of families and children, but also the presence of a loved one, has a positive impact on psychological well-being, which is growing on account of a feeling of "world domination." During the period of professional self-determination is an unmet need in the achievement of the desirable is shifted from the field of professional activity to the area of family relations. Family creation, maintaining and developing partnerships in the private sphere enhance the feeling of self "power" and itself possibility to change the world what does not exist in the professional field at a stage of professional self-determination.

The subjective view of the world, which includes attitude towards themselves and own potential, attitude to his age and his generation, evaluation of involvement in the outside world, has a significant impact on the psychological well-being of young people in the period of professional self-determination.

However, the influence of subjective factors on the psychological well-being is not equivalent. Psychological well-being during the period of professional self-determination largely is connected with the attitude towards yourself and your potential and the least with relation to their age.

Itself attitude, which includes an assessment of their communication skills, subjective characteristics, tolerance and life self-organization, could be considered as personal resources in improving the psychological well-being as a whole and its individual spheres in particular. However, subject characteristics, which, according to our hypothesis, should play a leading role in professional self-realization, in young age at the step of professional self-determination, gave place to communication skills. This fact speaks not so much about the poor development of subjective qualities of today's youth, but about the lack of coherence of these qualities with life satisfaction, which corresponds to found absence of influence of professional identity on the psychological well-being. Impact assessment of communication skills at the level of psychological well-being reflects the role of communication in the modern world: increasing the role of communication, the demand for professions, which are based on communication skills, increasing the number of contacts and their diversity. Thus, of the three basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and relatedness to other people), increasing psychological well-being [Deci, Ryan, 2008], in the period of professional self-determination among the people the general need becomes connectedness with other people, which compensates for the lack of professional competence.

In the course of this study, it was revealed effect on psychological well-being not only subjective evaluation of itself, but also the effect of comparing yourself with the subjective ideal image. At the same time, the relation between the subjective ideal image and the psychological well-being has not been revealed. Thus, the psychological well-being is caused not by the ideal itself but by degree of reaching of subjective self-image and own life to the ideal image.

Partially comparison of yourself with other or with the ideal presents in such factors as "subjective biological age", "perfect age of Me", "life position", "degree of achievement of the ideal in life satisfaction", "degree of achievement of the ideal in the image I". Considering the share of impact assessments and comparisons on the psychological well-being, we can say that life satisfaction is more dependent on the degree of achievement of the ideal image than on direct subjective evaluation. The process of relating themselves and their lives with the ideal image becomes another resource for improving psychological well-being.

Regression analysis revealed the presence of both direct and reverse impact factors on the level of psychological well-being. At the same time, it revealed a change of direction of the impact of such subjective factors as "degree of achievement of the ideal in the image I" and "tolerance", depending on the sphere of psychological well-being. Those an increase of the same factor can induce as raise as decrease the level of psychological well-being by increasing / reducing satisfaction in a particular area of psychological well-being. This fact should be taken into account when referring to human resource system.

Conclusions

1.Subjective factors reflecting subjective world picture of a young man cause psychological well-being during the period of professional self-determination largely than the social and economic factors.

2. Professional identity at the stage of self-determination at the initial period of employment has no significant effect on life satisfaction and cannot act as self-motivator.

3. In the period of professional self-determination among the youth of the three basic psychological needs (competence, autonomy and connection with other people), increasing psychological well-being, the leading is connection with other people, which compensates the lack of professional competence.

4. The role of subjective factors reflecting the degree of achievement of the ideal is more essential than the role of the subjective assessment of themselves and the world.

5. Depending on the sphere of psychological well-being, it is changing not only the degree of influence, but also a set of predictors and their contribution to the evaluation of dependent variable.

6. Subjective factors reflecting ideas about themselves and the world together with personal characteristics are resources for  increasing psychological well-being during the period of professional self-determination, what can be used in corrective and prophylactic work with young people.

7. When referring to the human resource system needs to take into account the direction of the influence of subjective factors on the psychological well-being as a whole and its individual components, in particular.


Funding
The study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Humanities, project 14-06-00206 "Subjective perception of themselves and the world with different psychological well-being during the life self-determination of modern youth".


Refernces

Bazhin E.F., Etkind A.M. “Personal Differential” Technique. Leningrad: Behterev Scientific Research Institute of Psychology and Neurology, 1983. (in Russian)

Davidson C. I'm Polygonal,OK. INTAND Newsletter, 1999, 7(1), 6–9.

Deci E., Ryan R.M. Self-Determination theory: a macrotheory of human motivation, development and health. Canadian Psychology, 2008, 49(3), 182–185.

Eidelman G. N. The features of beliefs at different levels of psychological well-being among today’s youth. Experimental psychology, 2016, 9(2), 82–94. doi:10.17759/ exppsy.2016090207 (in Russian)

Eidelman G.N. Subjective assessment of the world at a young age (20–30 years). The man, the subject, the person in modern psychology. Proceedings of the International Conference dedicated to the 80th anniversary of A.V.Brushlinskogo. Moscow: Institute of Psychology RAS, 2013. Vol. 1, pp. 366–369. (in Russian)

Eidelman G.N., Sergienko E.A. Psychological well-being of today's young people in the period of  self-determination. Proceedings of the Conference of the European Association of Pedagogues and Psychologists. Geneva: Center of the European Association of Pedagogues and Psychologists “Science”, 2015. pp. 202–212. (in Russian)

Ernst F. Transactional Analysis in  the OK Corral: The grid to get on with. Transactional Analysis Journal, 1971, 1(4), 231–240.

Kon I.S. Looking for yourself. Personality and its identity. Moscow: Politizdat, 1984. (in Russian)

Kornilova T.V., Chumakova M.A., Kornilov S.A., Novikova M.A. Psychology of Uncertainty: The unity of the intellectual and personal potential of man. Moscow: Smysl, 2010. (in Russian)

Leontiev D.A., Fam A.H. How we make choice: structure experiences of their own choice and their relation with the characteristics of the personality. Bulletin of Moscow University. Series 14. Psychology, 2011, No. 1, 39–53. (in Russian)

Leontiev D.A., Pilipko N.V. The choice as activity: personal determinants and possibilities of formation. Questions of Psychology, 1995, No. 1, 97–110. (in Russian)

Lyubomirsky S. The HOW of happiness: A practical approach to getting the life you want. London: Sphere, 2007.

Saks D.M., Levi S. Test “Sentences completion”. Digest "Projective psychology". Moscow: Eksmo-Press, 2000. pp 203–237. (in Russian)

Sergienko E.A., Eidelman G.N. The subjective view of the world, psychological well-being in a state of self-determination of  today’s young people. Psychology of mental states. Kazan: Otechestvo, 2014. Vol. 9, pp. 257–273. (in Russian)

Sergienko E.A., Eidelman G.N. Age identity of today's youth as a factor of self-determination. Obrazovanie i samorazvitie, 2015, 3(45), 62–72. (in Russian)

Shevelenkova T.D., Fesenko P.P. Psychological well-being of the individual (review of the basic concepts and methodological research). Psychological diagnostics, 2005, No. 3, 95–130. (in Russian)

Received 19 June 2016. Date of publication: 30 December 2016.

About authors

Eidelman Galina N. Applicant, Laboratory of Psychology of the Subject in the Normal and Post-traumatic Condition, Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Yaroslavskaya, 13, 129366 Moscow, Russia; Senior Lecturer, Department of Personality Development Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Moscow Region State University, Zelenograd, 1643, 124365 Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Sergienko Elena A. Ph.D., Professor, Principal Research Associate, Laboratory of Psychology of the Subject in the Normal and Post-traumatic Condition, Institute of Psychology, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. Yaroslavskaya, 13, 129366 Moscow, Russia.
E-mail: Этот адрес электронной почты защищен от спам-ботов. У вас должен быть включен JavaScript для просмотра.

Suggested citation

Eidelman G.N., Sergienko E.A. The role of subjective factors in the psychological well-being of youth in the situation  of professional self-determination. Psikhologicheskie Issledovaniya, 2016, Vol. 9, No. 50, p. 8. http://psystudy.ru (in Russian, abstr. in English).

Permanent URL: http://psystudy.ru/index.php/eng/2016v9n50e/1371-eidelman50e.html

Back to top >>

Related Articles